The advent of the internet and the invention of the hypertext system has ushered in an information revolution, whereby anything that can be digitised can be easily reproduced and distributed at almost zero cost. However in some cases, the information revolution has been subverted and information has become an expensive and artificially scarce commodity. The most notable case of this subversion is occurring with the publication of academic research articles. The purpose of this paper is to explain how the subversion of the publication of academic research articles occurred and then to suggest long term sustainable remedies.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE DIGITAL ACADEMIC PUBLISHING PROBLEM
The world wide web (www) is born in order to store and share academic research information
In March 1989 Tim Berners-Lee published a paper at CERN proposing the world wide web using the inter-networking infrastructure developed by Leonard Kleinrock, Vinton Cerf and Robert Khan in the 1960’s and 1970’s and published as RFC 675.
In January 1997 the HTTP 1.1 protocol is published as RFC 2068.
The original purpose of the world wide web (WWW) was to share and store information related to academic research.
The subversive proposal and the serials crisis
In 1994 Stevan Harnard presented a paper entitled “PUBLICLY RETRIEVABLE FTP ARCHIVES FOR ESOTERIC SCIENCE AND SCHOLARSHIP: A SUBVERSIVE PROPOSAL” whereby he proposed that academic authors archive digital articles on anonymous public FTP servers.
However, this did not happen because academic societies chose to publish via commercial publishing houses. Initially the commercial publishing houses provided cost effective publishing services but then costs started to escalate over the years, more than the annual consumer price index. This rapid cost increase has put enormous pressure on academic library budgets and has led to the “serials crisis”.
Open access remedy
In February 2002 the Budapest open access declaration is published. In April 2003 the Bethesda open access statement is published. In October 2003 the Berlin open access declaration is published. In July 2012, Peter Suber publishes the definitive open access book.
Open access is seen as the remedy to the “serials crisis” and a concept to provide public access to publicly financed research.
Open access adoption
DIGITAL PRESERVATION BY ACADEMIC LIBRARIES AS THE LONG TERM REMEDY FOR THE ACADEMIC PUBLISHING PROBLEM
It is proposed that academic libraries provide platforms for storing and preserving the digital outputs of the academic research process. The platforms that are developed and maintained, should be based on open digital technologies, to ensure the best possible chance of the technology surviving for the benefit of future researchers.
Digital preservation is a long term strategy that has two essential components:
- Preserve and maintain a digital container for the digital research objects.
- Preserve and maintain the digital research objects themselves.
If it is accepted that academic libraries should preserve the digital academic record then the next question to ask is… how to implement such a service and ensure that is available now and in the future? A solution is proposed by the following heading.
CAPACITY PLANNING FOR DIGITAL PRESERVATION BY ACADEMIC RESEARCH LIBRARIES
The platform for storing the research digital objects is normally called an institutional repository. Therefore a digital preservation plan for the repository and the digital objects in the repository should exist. This digital preservation plan should ensure that there is ample capacity for the long term operation and maintenance of the repository.
The capacity for the long term preservation of the repository and the digital objects contained therein can be facilitated by two distinct groups, namely:
- An operations team.
- A systems team.
The bare minimum for a digital preservation group is detailed below.
The operations team consists of the following persons:
- Repository Librarian and Journal Librarian
The systems team consists of the following persons:
- Java Web App Developer
- Ubuntu Linux System Administrator
For further details of capacity building and planning, please go to: http://wiki.lib.sun.ac.za/index.php/SUNScholar/Capacity_Building
PROPOSED BUSINESS MODEL – COSTED 2015
From the team definitions above it is possible to determine a provisional business model. The only missing component is the cost of hardware which will be dealt with first.
These hardware costs can be amortised over 4 years, which is the normal warranty period for hardware.
|Production Server||R250,000.00 each||R250,000.00|
|Backup Server X2||R150,000.00 each||R300,000.00|
|Internet Connection||Usually for the central IT department to provide.||n/a|
|Operations and Systems Managers||R450,000 each||R900,000.00|
|Operations Librarians X2||R350,000.00 each||R700,000.00|
|Systems Technicians X2||R350,000.00 each||R700,000.00|
Therefore annual costs are as follows:
|Hardware||(R250,000.00 + R300,000.00) / 4 years||R137,500.00 pa|
|Personnel||R900,000.00 + R700,000.00 + R700,000.00||R2,300,000.00 pa|
|Total Cost||R137,500.00 + R2,300,000.00||R 2, 437,500.00 pa|
The academic publishing problem was defined and a comprehensive remedy was proposed. Whether the remedy is adopted by academic libraries is an open question for each academic library to ponder… if they want to move forward constructively and become relevant role players again in academic research institutions.
The following appendix has more detail regarding the open digital technologies proposed.
APPENDIX – OPEN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES
To ensure the availability of the digital academic record in the future, our best bet is to use open digital technologies, because we have no reliable way of predicting what technologies will be used by future researchers. The internet is a great example of a sustainable interoperable open digital technology platform and is the benchmark for open digital technology projects.
See: http://wiki.lib.sun.ac.za/index.php/SUNScholar/Open_System for more details about open digital technologies.
Now that we have established the need for open digital technologies, the next step is to identify the open digital technologies available today.
File formats (bitstreams)
The first consideration should be the file formats used which should always be uncompressed. Only file formats that have open, royalty free and patent free, published digital format standards and metadata schemas should be used. Examples are provided below:
The following are the recommended open document formats:
The following are the recommended open image formats:
The following are the recommended open audio formats:
The following are the recommended open video formats and containers:
The following are the recommended open database formats:
For further details regarding digitisation projects, please see: http://wiki.lib.sun.ac.za/index.php/SUNScholar/Digitisation
The next consideration regarding open digital technologies is the software used to build and maintain the repository, because the repository itself must also be preserved for future use. A digital repository is built using server hardware (bare metal or cloud virtualised) and a server operating system, on top of which is installed, the actual repository software. For the server operating system and repository software it is recommended that open source software be used.
Open Source Server Operating System
The recommended open source server operating system software is Ubuntu LTS. For more details about the selection of Ubuntu as the server operating system, please go to: http://wiki.lib.sun.ac.za/index.php/SUNScholar/DSpace/Why_Ubuntu_Server
Open Source Repository Software
The recommended open source repository software is DSpace. For a detailed listing of available repository software products, please go to: http://wiki.lib.sun.ac.za/index.php/List_of_Repository_Software